Women are not supposed to smoke because they might become infertile Smoking is for men not for women Cultural resistance to female smoking Striving to become a man Female smokers were viewed in a negative, unrespectable way, as prostitutes or transsexuals Female smoking is not culturally appropriate It is inappropriate and not well mannered for women to smoke. The themes reflect the norms and values relating to smoking in Javanese society as described by the boys, the reasons for their smoking, their perceptions of health risks and their beliefs on addiction and on quitting. Smoking as a culturally internalized habit This theme reflects the norms and values about smoking and tobacco that the boys meet in Javanese society. The boys emphasized that smoking is common everywhere among men and that this has been the case ever since tobacco was first smoked.
Conceptual Background Pictorial cigarette pack warnings dampen smoking, but most evidence comes as of studies of adults. Methods We interviewed 24 adolescents whose parents received attractive warnings on their cigarette packs at the same time as part of a randomized clinical anxiety. Results Pictorial cigarette pack warnings led adolescents to imagine the depicted fitness effects happening to their parents, which elicited negative emotions. The warnings brilliant adolescents to initiate conversations with their parents and others about quitting smoking. Adolescents believed the warnings would advantage smokers quit and prevent youth as of starting smoking. Some current smokers alleged the warnings made them consider quitting. Conclusions Conversations about the pictorial warnings may amplify their effectiveness for smokers, their adolescent children, and friends of the adolescent children. Cigarette pack warnings may reach a broad audience so as to includes adolescent children of smokers.